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Jumat, 31 Juli 2009

Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is an assessment /area/research penelitiaan the village in a participatory way. Therefore, PRA is a method used in conducting the review/ evaluation/research to understand keadaa condition or the village / area / locality specific involving community participation.

Robert Chambers is the person who developed a PRA method, states that the methods and techniques in the PRA continues to grow, so it is very difficult to give the final definition of the PRA. The PRA is a method and approach to learning about the conditions of life and the village / area / locality of, by and with the communities themselves with the note: (1) The study included analyzing, designing and acting, (2) PRA is more suitable methods or approaches (the plural) of the method and approach (a single), and (3) The PRA has a number of techniques that we can choose, is always open to accept the ways and methods that are considered suitable.

So the PRA is a set of approaches and methods that encourage the community in a village / area / locality to participate, and to improve and analyze their knowledge about the living conditions and their own so they can plan and action.


Basic principles of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) consists of :

1. The principle that Ignored (Alignment).
This principle is the terabaikan so that the community have the opportunity to have a role and benefit in the development program. Keberpihakan more on this effort to achieve the balance of treatment of various groups of which there are in a society, the poorest groups in order to improve their lives.

2. The principle of empowerment (Strengthening) community
The PRA had increased the ability of the community, the enhanced capability in the process of situation, decision making and the determination of policy, to the provision of assessment and corrections to the activities that take place.

3. The principle of community as actors and as people outside facilitator
PRE place as a center of community development activities. People outside should also be aware role as facilitator. Facilitators need to have a humble attitude and kesediannya study of society and placing them as the main source of information in the community understand that. At the beginning of the role of people outside the large, but over time the role that can be grown with reduced activity PRA initiative shifts the community itself.

4. The principle of mutual learning and respect the differences
One of the principle of recognition is essentially akan experience and traditional knowledge communities. This does not mean that society must always be correct and does not change, so should be seen that the experience and knowledge society and knowledge complement each other outside the same and bernilainya, and that the PRA is a place of communication between the two systems of knowledge that birth is something better .

5. Casual and informal principles
PRA activities conducted in an environment that is flexible, open, informal and not force. This situation will cause a close relationship, because people outside akan berproses signed in as members of the community, not as a foreign guest should be greeted by the public officially.

6. The principle of triangulation
One of the activities of PRA is to collect and analyze the data or information systematically together with the community. To get information that can be relied kedalamnnya we can use triangulation which is a form of examination and re-inspection (check and recheck) information. Triangulation is done through membership penganekaragaman team (the diversity of disciplines or experience), penganekaragaman source of information (diversity of backgrounds among the people, the diversity of place, gender) and the diversity of techniques.

7. The principle of optimizing the results
The principle of optimizing the results or obtain appropriate information to the PRA method is:
- It is better we "do not know what we do not need to know" (know as needed secukupnya only)
- It is better we "do not know if the information could be properly called a hundred percent, but estimated that the information is likely to approach the truth" (rather than we know at all)

8. Principles of practical orientation
PRE-oriented development of the practical activities. Therefore, the appropriate information required and sufficient, to develop programs that can solve problems and improve community life. Please note that PRA is only as a means or method that is used to optimize the programs developed with the community.

9. The principle of sustainability and the lapse of time
PRA is not the method of the completed package after extracting information activities are considered adequate and the outside activities that facilitate exit from the village. PRA is a method that must dijiwai and dihayati by the implementing agencies and field, so that their problem will be developed continuously based on the principles of PRA try the potential of the community.

10. The principle of learning from mistakes
Of errors in the PRA is a reasonable, not the most important in the implementation of perfection, but the implementation as well as possible in accordance with the existing capabilities. We learn from the shortfalls or errors that occur, so that the next event better.

11. The principle of open
Principle opens the PRA as a method and device engineering is not complete, perfect and definitive truth. It is expected that this technique can always be developed in accordance with local circumstances and needs. Donations from those who implement and run it in the field to refine the concept, design ideas and new techniques that will be very useful in developing methods of PRA.

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